Bonds Definition of bár opció Options are contracts granting the right to the option holder buyer to sell or buy an underlying security at an agreed-upon price strike price on a specific future date. In other words: options give the option to the buyer to sell or buy an underlying. In the same time, options generate an obligation to the seller of the option.
There are two types of options: call buy and put sell. A call option offers bár opció buyer the right, but not the obligation to buy.
On the contrary, a put option offers the buyer the right but not the obligation to sell. Another way to categorise options is the time when the option can be exercised. There are two main styles: European and American.
European-style options can be exercised only at maturity, which is a specific future date. American-style options can be exercised any time between the time of purchase and maturity date.
The underlying security or asset is the instrument, which the option grants the right to sell or buy. The maturity or expiration date is the date when or until the option can be exercised. The strike price of the option is the agreed-upon price of the underlying.
The actual market price of the underlying at maturity does not matter. Options can be categorised based on their market as well. On the stock exchange, option contracts are standardised in terms of underlying, maturity, and strike price.
Options with underlying of stock exchange indexes are the most well known. The value of an option at expiry equals to the amount exchanged if the option is exercised.
If the option does not worth to exercise, its value will be zero.
Therefore, the value of a buy option is either the difference between the price of the underlying and the strike price or zero the difference between the two prices is negative. On the contrary, the value of a sell option is either the difference between the strike price and the price of the underlying or zero the difference between the two prices is negative.
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Before maturity, the value of the option depends on what type of bár opció it is. However, analytic approach cannot be used for American options, valuation is only possible with numeric methods. The most well-know numeric method is the Binomial model.
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Premium of an option The value of an option can be divided into two factors: extrinsic time value and intrinsic value. Intrinsic value is the amount an option would worth if it was exercised today price of underlying - strike price. Time value makes up the remaining part: value of the option - time value.
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At maturity, the time value is zero and the value of the option equals to the intrinsic value. In the Money ITM options have intrinsic values. In case of a Call option it means that the price of the underlying is higher than the strike price.
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For Put options it is the opposite: the price of the bár opció is lower than the strike price. At the Money ATM is when the price of the underlying equals to the strike price.
Out of the Money OTM options have no intrinsic values: for Call options the strike price is higher than the price of the underlying and for Put options it is the opposite: the strike price is lower than the price of the underlying. The Black-Scholes option pricing model relies on this value as well. The calculation requires the following variables: spot price, exercise price strike pricerisk-free interest rate, and time to expiry.
This is directly observable from the price of the options.